Popular worldwide, cultivated worldwide, a byword for the best white wine enjoyment: Chardonnay. From Burgundy to Australia, hardly any other grape variety is cultivated as frequently as Chardonnay. With good reason and to the delight of many fans of the white queen of wine.
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Popular worldwide, grown worldwide, worldwide a byword for the best white wine enjoyment: Chardonnay. It grows everywhere, but not everywhere well. Many love it, others don't. Chardonnay is a wine cosmos of its own. From Burgundy to Australia, few other grape varieties are as widely grown as Chardonnay. With good reason and to the delight of many fans of the white queen of wine.
What some describe as the weakness of Chardonnay is in fact its strength. The wine from the noble grape variety is crisp, fresh, but also neutral in taste. However, as soon as the grape reaches the winery cellar, the winemaker can give it his stamp. The terroir is also clearly reflected in the bright dress. It is a true blessing that Chardonnay has found a home all over the world.
Chardonnay wine - an Elysian experience
Few people know the place, but the whole world knows the wine. Chardonnay is capable of adaptation - be it terroir or taste. Wherever white wine is vinified, Chardonnay is involved. That's because winemakers and connoisseurs love the grape for its idiosyncrasies. Good taste paired with local influences. A wine for every day and every occasion. A noble grape that needs no great introduction. Tasty and refreshing as the Chardonnay is, we do it anyway.
Origin and history
Chardonnay takes its name from the small village of Chardonnay near the town of Mâcon in Burgundy. Or vice versa? Experts argue about this to this day. Only one thing is clear: Chardonnay is a cross between Gouais Blanc (Heunisch) and Pinot. And therefore native to Burgundy. DNA analyses have shown this. It is equally evident that Chardonnay thrives in almost any soil. The grape variety quickly spread throughout France - not least due to an imperial decree. Charlemagne pushed viticulture, and Benedictine and Cistercian monks popularized Chardonnay throughout Europe. The little effort, coupled with good yields, soon made the noble grape variety popular around the globe. Today, Chardonnay is the epitome of white wine from America to South Africa to New Zealand.
Legend has it that it was Charlemagne's wife who promoted the cultivation of white grape varieties. She found the constant red wine stains in her husband's large white beard unseemly and unsightly. Soon, numerous vineyards were cultivated with white grape varieties a' la Chardonnay and Aligoté. The Corton-Charlemagne vineyard still testifies to the close ties between the Franconian emperor and viticulture in Europe.
Chardonnay wines - the freedom to drink
Everyone who drinks his way through the wide world of wine cannot avoid trying a Chardonnay. Whether white wine, dessert wine, champagne, sparkling wine, metodo classico or spumante. From all corners of the world, winemakers are constantly bringing new creations to the market. They outdo themselves time after time, playing with the Chardonnay. In fact, the soil plays a major role in how the wine presents itself later. Chardonnay grows almost everywhere: France, USA, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, Austria, Spain, South Africa, Germany and so on. As long as the soil is deep and the surface is warm, the quite robust Chardonnay grape thrives on the vineyards.
Clearance - Chardonnay taste
Chardonnay wine has a high extract content and thus a full, often velvety body. The relatively neutral aroma can be enhanced by numerous interventions by the winemaker. However, when the grapes are not very ripe, the wine tastes thin and grassy. Fully ripe grapes transform into fresh fruity wines with hints of fruit and flowers, often herbs and minerals. Chardonnay is one of those wines that have a lot of alcohol, starting at 13% by volume. Chardonnay combines - depending on the aging - numerous aromas. For example, raspberry, apple, hazelnut, marzipan, vanilla, peach, tomato, tobacco and tea. There is something for everyone. The wine also tends to develop a complex profile, especially after a long aging. However, only the best Chardonnay wines are suitable for this. Overall, the accessible white wine convinces in many facets and easily surpasses other white Burgundy varieties.
Chardonnay wine is a white wine made from the white Chardonnay grape.
It has a medium body and a lively bouquet. With aromas of citrus, apple, pear, melon, honey, caramel and vanilla.
Chardonnay is a popular wine in many parts of the world.
Chardonnay wines are usually dry, but they also taste semi-dry or sweet.
Chardonnay wines are light and harmonious and go well with a variety of foods. Especially with poultry, fish and seafood dishes.
Chardonnay Fun Facts
For years, Chardonnay was thought to have originated in the Near East. Until DNA analysis proved that Chardonnay is a mutation of Heunisch and Pinot and thus originates from France.
ABC: Anything but Chardonnay. Too many cheap wines and over-production have tarnished the whitewash of Chardonnay, causing many to shun the wine. Fortunately, the quality has grown greatly around the world.
Because of the prominence of the Chardonnay Lane-Pascoe character on the TV series Footballer's Wives, 65 children were born with that name in 2002. The year before that, there were 0.
Chardonnay means thistle place / place with many thistles.
Although not approved until 1991, Chardonnay has been growing in sunny Baden since the 1950s. However, incorrectly under the name Weißburgunder.
Natural talent - the origin of Chardonnay
The name comes from the small community Chardonnay, from where monks distributed the grape variety throughout Europe. The ease of cultivation, the possibility of influencing the taste in the cellar and the aroma made the wine world curious. It was soon realized that Chardonnay could be grown almost anywhere. Today you can find Chardonnay white wine from every corner of the world. Over 200,000 hectares of cultivated land are used worldwide. Moreover, every winemaker produces his Chardonnay either dry, semi-dry, sweet, noble sweet, extra brut, brut or dry-sec. Diverse, versatile and delicious is not enough to describe the best Chardonnay white wines. So why queen of white wine? Goddess of white wine is more apt.
Countries where Chardonnay grows and thrives
Chardonnay is one of the most widely grown grape varieties in the world. And thus can be found in all large and small wine countries. The largest stock has France with over 47,000 hectares of vines. These are found particularly in the famous sites of the Côte de Beaune, Mâcon and Chablis in Burgundy. Other notable areas of cultivation are in Champagne and Languedoc-Roussillon.
With 41,000 hectares of land, the USA is devoted to Chardonnay. California, in particular, achieves the best results, surpassing even the French in many a blind tasting. Oregon and Washington have significantly less acreage than California. But here, too, the undemanding grape variety thrives to the full.
Again and again, Australia also attracts attention at awards. The Aussies are going their very own way and showing the world undreamed-of potential from the approximately 21,000 hectares planted with Chardonnay.
In Italy Chardonnay grows on about 19,000 hectares - primarily in Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino Alto-Adige in the north of the country. Chile follows with about 11,000 hectares. Other countries with large Chardonnay vineyards are Spain (7,000 ha), South Africa (7,000 ha) Argentina (6,000 ha) and China (6,000 ha). Also Moldova, Israel, Georgia, Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, Russia, New Zealand, Austria, Romania, Ukraine, Canada, Serbia and Montenegro.
Widespread worldwide and always on the rise - Chardonnay vineyard area is growing and growing. Some may be surprised why established wine countries like Germany and Austria nevertheless cultivate only a few hectares of Chardonnay. The reason is simple: the grape variety was only approved a few years ago. In Germany in 1991, in Austria even only in 1999, but in both countries the area under vine has been growing ever since.
Chardonnay ranks 5th in terms of acreage between Tempranillo and Syrah, being the number 2 most cultivated white grape variety behind Airén. Airén is mainly used for brandy in Spain.
Regions related to the Chardonnay grape variety
Burgundy (Chablis, Mâcon, Côte de Beaune)
All the great white wines of Burgundy are closely related to Chardonnay. Within the borders of this region are famous appellations. These have launched the success of Chardonnay. The Côte de Beaune presents wines from the top sites of the communes of Montrachet, Meursault and Aloxe-Corton. The wine from Montrachet is one of the most sought-after of all - and thus also one of the most expensive. On the limestone weathered rubble with deep soil grows only the white grape variety, and that in perfection. Thus, on just 8 hectares, Chardonnays are produced against which all others measure themselves.
A little further south from Mâcon, from a village called Chardonnay, come the typical French-fresh Chardonnays as they are known. Light, uncomplicated and clearly marked by the terroir.
Chablis with the surrounding chalky Grand Cru sites in the north of Burgundy, on the other hand, is a world of its own. The municipality is probably responsible for the worldwide popularity of Chardonnay like no other. At times, Chablis was even considered synonymous with white wine. As a result, numerous different grape varieties were marketed overseas under the name. But Chablis exists only here, in the north of Burgundy, and nothing else. For white wine from Chablis to be called Chablis, it must be vinified from Chardonnay grown in local vineyards. And it must be pure.
The Champagne needs no introduction. On the outside, it exudes a touch of luxury. But for us, it's the inner values that count, those that make up the sparkling delight. And that is Chardonnay. As one of the few permitted varieties, the white wine plays the leading role. Alongside the red wine varieties Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier. In the area Côte de Blancs even pure Chardonnay champagnes are vinified, the Blancs de Blancs.
With a vineyard area larger than the entire German, it is not surprising that there is also room for Chardonnay in the Languedoc. Namely, the growing area Limoux and the Crémant de Limoux benefit from the loose-light Chardonnay thanks to clay and limestone soils.
California (Sonoma, Napa, Monterey counties).
It was a blind tasting in 1976 that helped Chardonnay from California boom. The combined winemakers of Chateau Montelena Vineyard from California's Napa Valley won against the Burgundian greats. And they did it with a French jury! Known as the wine jury of Paris, the wine tasting led to heated discussions and a big boom in the US. In the meantime, California farmed more Chardonnay vines than France. Initially, attempts were made to reproduce the Burgundy style. Until the winemakers settled on their own style: creamy and full-bodied Chardonnays with a clear hint of wood.
Like many grape varieties, Chardonnay arrived in Australia as early as 1832 in the luggage of James Busby. However, the grape did not become successful until around 1971, which was after Murray Tyrell stole a few cuttings from Penfold's experimental garden in 1968. And grew in the Hunter Valley. Three years later, the success of Chardonnay was established. Because of the hot climate, Australian winemakers added oak chips and acidity to the wine. This gives the wine a rich character. The style caught on and soon Chardonnay was growing in every growing region.
Chardonnay is by no means something new in Trentino Alto-Adige. For a long time it was referred to only as Gelber Weißburgunder. Basically, it was equated with Pinot Blanc, grown mixed and vinified together. In addition to a handful of sparkling wines, it is primarily fresh, fruity Chardonnays that are typical of the high altitudes of South Tyrol.
The sparkling wines from the DOC Franciacorta take their cue from Champagne - so Chardonnay is involved. Whether pure or in a cuvée with Pinot Nero and Pinot Bianco. Chardonnay belongs in the first league of sparkling wines. And thus earns its place on the approximately 230 hectares of cultivated land south of Lake Iseo.
Directly on the border with Slovenia, the vineyards of Friuli-Venezia Giulia nestle against the Alps. The mixture of maritime and alpine climate is good for the Chardonnay grapes. They develop a fruity character with hints of tropical fruit. An exotic note underpinned by alpine herbs.
Mendoza, and Argentina as a whole, is not primarily associated with white wine. However, that didn't stop some winemakers from trying at altitudes as high as 1450 meters. It was said that the wines would never ripen - a fallacy. The Chardonnay wines from Mendoza are regularly among the best wines from overseas. Filigree, mineral and full of finesse, the wines from the stronghold of Malbec are in a league of their own. Even far from the mighty Andes, Chardonnay grows through the desert climate of the surrounding countryside. It yields a wine, though not of the highest quality, that has established the noble grape in Argentina. And the higher the winemakers grow the Chardonnay, the better the quality. The Malbec can already make room - the white wine from Mendoza is on the rise.
The Chardonnay grape under the magnifying glass
Ancestry, mutations and new varieties
Chardonnay is a cross between Gouais Blanc and Pinot.
There are countless clones and three known mutations.
Chardonnay Musqué - white grape variety whose grapes have a musky tone.
Chardonnay Rosé - pink-colored mutation from white Chardonnay, registered in the Federal Office of Plant Varieties since 2019.
Melon � Queue Rouge - mutation from the French Jura region with a reddish stem.
The good qualities of the Chardonnay grape variety are often used for new varieties. Known new varieties are
Chardonnay is blended with Sémillon in Australia. The cuvée is called Semchard.
The Chardonnay grape variety has often been confused with other grape varieties due to morphological similarities. Among them especially the Burgundy varieties, but also Auxerrois, Pinot Blanc, Traminer or Aligoté. It also takes a closer look to see the differences. The shoot tips are open, the stem bight U- to V-shaped, the grapes medium-sized and compact. Finally, at full maturity, you can see clear differences in color, as Chardonnay turns greenish yellow to amber. The ampelographer Victor Pulliat had already differentiated Chardonnay and Pino Blanc in 1868. While the rest of Europe until a few years ago still had problems with a uniform determination.
Demand on soil & climate of the grape variety Chardonnay
Calcareous soils offer the best conditions for the Chardonnay grape. However, it thrives on almost all soils, as long as they have sufficient depth for the necessary water supply.
Warmth is good for Chardonnay. But also moderate climate, as in Burgundy, is enough for the variety to ripen perfectly.
Susceptibility to diseases
Due to thin skins and stinginess, Chardonnay is prone to berry botrytis, which leads to negative characteristics of the grape. In addition, the variety is quite susceptible to powdery mildew and downy mildew. As well as gray mold rot and infestation with phyhtoplasma. Small berry and yellowing can also be an issue. Grape berry moth prefers Chardonnay grapes to other grape varieties.
The vine is susceptible to late frost on medium-early budbreak, but is usually harvested before frost arrives.
Yield and harvest
The Chardonnay grape variety ripens medium to medium-late. In good conditions, it produces medium-high and regular yields. If the yields are too high, the quality suffers, so it is necessary to reduce the yield.
The grape variety is usually vinified dry, and is also excellent for sparkling and sweet wines. Mostly Chardonnay comes dry into the glass. Dry vinification emphasizes the acidity and character of Chardonnay. In the cellar, the winemaker has the choice of performing malolactic fermentation or not. The transformation of malic acid into lactic acid results in a creamy character in the wine. Barrel aging is rare for white wines, but it is very popular for Chardonnay. This gives the wine a woody note with aromas of vanilla and smoke. Wines from stainless steel tanks are fruity and mineral.
Chardonnay presents itself in many varieties and serves numerous tastes with flying colors.
Chardonnay at VINELLO
The crisp Chardonnay wine is just waiting to spoil you with fine aroma and fresh taste. What could be better than having the queen of white wine at home? At VINELLO you will find first-class white wines from all over the world and especially fine variants of Chardonnay.
Buy your favorite wine online, experience fast shipping and delivery and personal service. Everything for your enjoyment, everything for a glass of Chardonnay in your hand. Individual bottles or as wine packages with extra content. Enjoy sunny days and brilliant Chardonnay white wines. Day after day - with the wine store VINELLO and a star of the wine world.
Things to know about Chardonnay
What is Chardonnay? Chardonnay is a white grape variety grown worldwide. Originally it comes from Burgundy, more precisely from Chardonnay. The grape is considered a noble vine and is cultivated on over 200,00 ha worldwide. This puts Chardonnay in 5th place among the most cultivated grape varieties in the world. The largest growing nations are France, the USA and Argentina. Depending on the development, Chardonnay wine is fruity-fresh or creamy-smoky.
How to drink Chardonnay? Chardonnay white wine is served at a temperature of 12-14°C.
What food goes well with Chardonnay? Chardonnay is excellent with fish and seafood as well as roasted meat and asparagus. White wines from barrique barrels harmonize with hearty cheeses and lamb.
How to store a bottle of Chardonnay? Single-vineyard Chardonnay white wines aged in steel tanks should be drunk 3 years after harvest. Longer storage is not recommended. High-quality wines, on the other hand, have a storage potential of up to 10 years. And they also increase significantly in complexity during this time. As with most wines, bottles should be stored in a cool, dark and temperature-resistant place.
How long does an open bottle of Chardonnay last? An open bottle of Chardonnay white wine will keep for up to 5 days in the refrigerator, provided the bottle is sealed.
When to drink Chardonnay? Fruity and light Chardonnay is a perfect companion for sunny days. The white wine also shows its strengths with light meals. Uncomplicated and unobtrusive, Chardonnay is a welcome guest together with friends on the balcony and terrace.
What is Chardonnay in German? Chardonnay can be translated as place of thistles, or place with many thistles.
What is Chardonnay sparkling wine? Wine from Chardonnay grape variety is excellent for sparkling wine production. For this purpose, the base wine undergoes further fermentation, preferably in the bottle. Famous sparkling wines with Chardonnay are Champagne and Franciacorta, as well as numerous Crémants from France.
What is Chardonnay brut? The appendage brut is comparable to the German "trocken" and thus refers to the residual sugar content in the wine.
What is grappa Chardonnay? Grappa is an Italian spirit obtained from the distillation of pomace, the residue from grapes during winemaking. Many grape varieties can be used for grappa, including Chardonnay.
Where is Chardonnay grown? Chardonnay is grown all over the world - after all, after Airén, it is the most cultivated white grape variety in the world (however, with new acreage constantly being planted, it is only a matter of time before Chardonnay secures first place). Originally from Burgundy, Chardonnay has spread throughout Europe in the hands of monks. With the discovery of new worlds, the grape variety spread to America, Africa and Australia.
Is Pinot Blanc Chardonnay? Although both grape varieties are similar in appearance, Chardonnay and Pinot Blanc are two different grapes.
Is Chardonnay champagne? No, Chardonnay is a grape variety that is used, for example, for the production of champagne. In this case, Chardonnay is one of the few authorized grape varieties. Along with the red varieties Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier, it is the most important white grape variety for Champagne.
What does Chablis taste like? Chablis wines are characterized by aromas of flowers and citrus fruits. Iodine nuances and strong mineral notes reflect the calcareous soils of the growing region. Depending on the vineyard, Chablis Chardonnay is complemented by a rich, soft and crisp body.
Is Chardonnay dry or sweet? Chardonnay wines are almost always dry, otherwise semi-dry.
What does Chardonnay taste like? Chardonnay is a versatile grape in the hands of winemakers. Although the grape itself tastes rather neutral, great influence can be exerted on the wine in the winery. Malolactic fermentation, aging in stainless steel tanks or barriques, lees aging are just a few examples. Thus, the variety of taste and style is great. From Chardonnay with floral, tropical aromas to sparkling sparkling wines to creamy white wines with hints of vanilla and brioche.
What glass for Chardonnay? In true style, Chardonnay aged in wooden barrels is enjoyed in a Burgundy glass. For those who simply enjoy life, any glass will do.
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